The lungs are one of the final items to develop in a baby. For this reason, it is common for babies to be born with birth defects in relation to their lungs. These types of defects are also called congenital lung abnormalities and are pretty rare.
Some of the signs that a birth defect has occurred can be signs that the baby is in respiratory distress. This could mean that they are breathing faster than normal or grunting while they are breathing. Their skin may also take on a blue tone. In order to diagnose a birth defect, doctors will perform x-rays as well as other imaging techniques to help them make the proper diagnosis.
There are several different birth defects that may appear when a baby has underdeveloped lungs. For example, cysts could form in the lungs. These will appear as honeycomb patterns on the x-ray and can make it harder for the lungs to drain.
It is also possible for the diaphragm to be formed incorrectly. This usually occurs when the diaphragm is missing or has a hole in it. This could allow other organs to make their way into the chest cavity, making it difficult for the lungs to expand properly.
The important thing to note is that these birth defects are rare. Babies who are born prematurely have a greater risk of developing them, so make sure you discuss them with your doctor if you are in this situation.